英文

英語雞精班:三角關係

【明報專訊】聽了13集節目,大家應該都對莎士比亞十四行詩了解多了,讓我們重溫基本格律。就以第96首為例,頭兩句運用了排比或對句(Parallel),Some say thy fault is youth, some wantonness; Some say thy grace is youth and gentle sport;(行1、2),兩句句式、長度和句構相似,指男子多情乃因 youth(年輕)或 wantonness(放縱)。此外,兩個相連,但意思完全無關,甚至相反的詞彙 grace(行3)(優雅)和 faults(行3)(錯誤)形成矛盾(Paradox),Both(行3)(兩者)有「皆為」的意思,暗示 grace(優雅)和 faults(錯誤)各有正負兩面,世間事皆如此,在乎我們如何看待,詩人不但沒有指摘年輕男子多情,反而暗示這是因為他太年輕,所以是可以理解的。

第八行通常是轉捩點,頭8行(Octave)是正面,後6行(Sestet)為反面,How many lambs might the stern wolf betray,(行9)(豺狼到底背叛了多少隻羊呢?)、If like a lamb he could his looks translate!(行10)(他好像一隻披着羊皮的狼一樣!)指如果年輕男子不能像豺狼般背叛羊群,他會另想方法欺騙或誘惑別人。最後兩句對句(Couplet)揭露全詩中心思想,勸勉年輕男子千萬不要因濫情而毁壞自己的名聲,最後詩人帶出 But do not so, I love thee in such sort, As thou being mine, mine is thy good report.(行13至14)(不要緊,因我如此愛你,以至彼此為一體,名譽相依)。

第42首首次以三角關係為題材,全詩運用反覆(Repetition)的手法,分別將「失去」:loss(行 4、9、10)、lose(行 9、11)、losing(行10),及「愛」:love(動詞,行2、6、14)、love(名詞,行4、9)這兩個概念及詞彙各重複6次,「失去」和「愛」運用了矛盾修辭法(Oxymoron),失去愛人令詩人痛徹心脾,If I lose thee, my loss is my love's gain,(行9)(如果我失去你,我失去的就是我愛人得到的),這樣看來不難令讀者聯想到三角戀。我們於日常生活常聽到 white lies(善意的謊言)、pretty ugly(有點醜)等,將兩個或以上意思完全對立的詞彙放在一起,就是運用了矛盾的手法。她佔有了年輕男子,使詩人傷心欲絕、嚎啕大哭(wailing chief)(行3),背叛所帶來的傷害如喪失至親。

本輯節目為大家剖析了莎士比亞十四行詩的格律和題材,只要我們多加學習,不難繼承莎士比亞美麗的文化遺產!

■Sonnet 96

Some say thy fault is youth, some wantonness;

Some say thy grace is youth and gentle sport;

Both grace and faults are lov'd of more and less:

Thou mak'st faults graces that to thee resort.

As on the finger of a throned queen

The basest jewel will be well esteem'd,

So are those errors that in thee are seen

To truths translated, and for true things deem'd.

How many lambs might the stern wolf betray,

If like a lamb he could his looks translate!

How many gazers mightst thou lead away,

If thou wouldst use the strength of all thy state!

But do not so, I love thee in such sort,

As thou being mine, mine is thy good report.

■Sonnet 42

That thou hast her it is not all my grief,

And yet it may be said I loved her dearly;

That she hath thee is of my wailing chief,

A loss in love that touches me more nearly.

Loving offenders thus I will excuse ye:

Thou dost love her, because thou know'st I love her;

And for my sake even so doth she abuse me,

Suffering my friend for my sake to approve her.

If I lose thee, my loss is my love's gain,

And losing her, my friend hath found that loss;

Both find each other, and I lose both twain,

And both for my sake lay on me this cross:

But here's the joy; my friend and I are one;

Sweet flattery! then she loves but me alone.

■文︰Sumie Chan

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